Recent Publications

Discussion Paper: Climate Risk Insurance and Informal-Risk Sharing

Building on a critical literature review, this paper addresses questions around the potential complementarities of informal risk sharing arrangements (IRSA) and climate risk insurance (CRI). For doing so, it investigates existing forms of IRSA as well as its advantages and challenges in the context of building climate resilience. Similarly, CRI is examined regarding its potential to sufficiently address the impacts of sudden onset risks for communities. Based on these insights, the paper then looks at the possibility and probability of both instruments working together as part of a comprehensive risk management strategy. Initiates file downloadDownload Here

Country Roadmaps for Integrated Climate Risk Management

Developed from work undertaken on ICRM through the “Advancing Climate Risk Insurance plus” (ACRI+) project, implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für International Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and MCII. The project aims to demonstrate the relevance of an integrated climate risk management approach, including insurance, across different sectors, scales and contexts. ACRI+ supported capacity building, awareness raising and institutional-strengthening in diverse settings and sectors: From renewable energy in Barbados, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Morocco, the agricultural sector in Ghana, and the urban development context in China. Thus, the project has developed country roadmaps for each context based upon a comprehensive risk analysis and the resulting appreciation of the gaps in capacity, resources and knowledge that could allow natural hazards to become disasters.


In Morocco, ACRI+ is working with Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in the Ait-Melloul industrial zone to support the development of financial and strategic capacities for managing climate risks, particularly from flooding, with a focus on the potential role of risk transfer. Opens external link in new windowDownload here


The ACRI+ project is working with stakeholders to improve the resilience of existing and future renewable energy generation, transmission and distribution infrastructure to climate and disaster risks. Opens external link in new windowDownload here

Ghana + China

In Ghana, the ICRM project is working across three Work streams within the agriculture sector: (1) sovereign drought risk insurance, (2) building capacities for risk prevention and risk reduction and (3) the development of insurance products for commercial agricultural actors. Opens external link in new windowDownload here

In China, ACRI+ is working with public and private stakeholders to improve the resilience of urban areas and especially urban infrastructure prone to mid-long term climate and disaster risks. Opens external link in new windowDownload here

Integrating Insurance into Climate Risk Management: Conceptual Framework, Tools and Guiding Questions - Examples from the Agricultural Sector

This interactive publication was developed as part of the Advancing Climate Risk Insurance Plus (ACRI+) project. The publication offers a different perspective to disaster risk management and climate change adaptation by focusing on the added value of climate risk insurance as a risk transfer instrument in all phases. 
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Creating Synergies Between Macro and Micro Level Insurance

The Disaster Risk Management community has been advocating for integrated and complementary approaches to financing the negative effects of climate disasters. Risk transfer solutions, in particular macro and microinsurance, have been applied simultaneously in national contexts.  In spite of this, policymakers and practitioners in macro and microinsurance schemes have struggled to find areas of common support. Theoretically, linkages could lead to process and resource efficiencies, ultimately enhancing the effectiveness of DRM strategies. Being aware of the importance of this issue, the InsuResilience Secretariat has deemed it essential to foster reflection on this topic through a session at the Microinsurance Conference held in Lusaka during November 6-8, 2018.

MCII’s fourth discussion paper elaborates on some of the ideas discussed during the preparations and the event, and reflects on the challenges faced by policymakers, practitioners and the private sector when developing comprehensive risk transfer approaches. Additionally, these ideas are complemented with insights from the literature. Lastly, this paper provides guidance on how these linkages could be furthered in the future.  Initiates file downloadDownload here

Climate Risk Insurance Solutions: Understanding the Drivers of Cost-Effectiveness. A Multi-Criteria Assessment Framework and Key-Performance Indicators

Building on a Multi Criteria Cost Effectiveness Analysis (MCCEA), this paper aims to develop an assessment framework that facilitates the comprehensive understanding of cost-effective climate risk insurance (CRI) approaches for vulnerable populations. MCCEA helps compare and select risk financing instruments based on their costs and overall effectiveness: Instead of taking a one-dimensional approach that only compares costs per unit of effectiveness, MCCEA conceptualizes cost-effectiveness more holistically.

The paper defines the determinants of cost-effectiveness as well as their drivers and corresponding key performance indicators (KPIs). The resulting framework is then applied to illustratively analyse four different schemes: ARC, CCRIF SPC, PCRAFI, R4.

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Integrating Insurance into CRM: Conceptual Framework, Tools & Guiding Questions: Examples from the Agricultural Sector

This is a summary report of the upcoming publication "Integrating Insurance into Climate Risk Management: Conceptual Framework, Tools and Guiding Questions: Examples from the Agricultural Sector". It addresses challenges faced by various actors by including climate insurance in their agricultural policies. It follows the five phases of the ICRM approach and offers guiding questions and a step-by-step approach. In addition, the document − in its full version − describes at least one tool linked with each guiding question. Hence, it informs the reader about what information is needed and what tools can be applied. It highlights insights into synergies between insurance and the different ICRM phases. Initiates file downloadDownload Here

Climate Risk Insurance: Transparency, Participation and Accountability - An overview assessment of regional risk pools (Discussion Paper Series, August 2018)

This paper discusses the importance for sovereign risk pools to be transparent, accountable and participatory so as to ensure that they benefit the most vulnerable. It focuses on the three risk pools CCRIF, PCRAFI and ARC, and aims to improve understanding of how the three requirements apply by developing corresponding assessment criteria, against which the pools are then evaluated. In concluding, the paper outlines a set of recommendations for several stakeholders, including for policy holders (governments), donors, and the risk pools themselves.

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Impact Evaluation of Climate Risk Insurance Approaches: Status Quo and Way Forward (Discussion Paper Series, April 2018)

This paper proposes an innovative impact measurement framework for assessing the resilience impact of climate risk insurance at the micro-level, concentrating on the household as the main unit of analysis, and building on the 3A capacities (Anticipate, absorb, adapt) approach. Based on a review of existing impact evaluations, which reveal a ‘resilience gap’, the proposed framework aims to close this gap by focusing on how climate risk insurance influences shock management strategies and well being levels in the short and long term. The result is an integrated framework formed on the basis of subjective and objective measures with a multi-dimensional index, which is both methodologically rigorous as well as feasible for the implementation context, and can be replicated in different settings.

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Climate Insurance and Water-Related Disaster Risk Management – Unlikely Partners in Promoting Development? (GWP Perspectives Paper, January 2018)

There is a growing consensus that insurance, risk transfer, and sharing mechanisms have an important and growing role to play, particularly in offsetting the economic impacts associated with extreme events. What is less clear is the extent to which such instruments encourage adaptation programmes and policies that would serve to minimise future loss and damage and, hence, contribute to sustainable development. This paper does not pretend to offer answers, but rather contributes to the emerging discussion and brings to that discussion a water lens.

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Climate Risk Insurance for Resilience: Assessing Countries' Implementation Plans (Report #23, November 2017)

This report provides the first bottom-up assessment of countries’ articulated demands over climate risk insurance in their climate policy pledges as part of the Paris Agreement. It is the result of a collaboration between the Munich Climate Insurance Initiative (MCII) and the German Development Institute (GDI/DIE). In conjunction with the launch of this report, the NDC Explorer – the leading interactive online visualization tool on countries’ commitments to the Paris Agreement – is to be updated to capture countries’ intended policies on climate risk insurance. 

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The Role of Insurance in Integrated Disaster and Climate Risk Management: Evidence and Lessons Learned (Report #22, October 2017)

This paper reviews the empirical evidence relating to when and how insurance can contribute to disaster and climate risk management. Aspects explored include the contribution of insurance to, or even creating the macro-conditions for, resilience to disasters in terms of public finance, economic growth and good governance; the contribution of insurance to risk prevention, preparedness, response and recovery; and the factors that influence the provision of insurance by companies and governments, and uptake of insurance by governments and households. Findings and conclusions from the empirical review are provided. Initiates file downloadDownload here

Making Climate Risk Insurance Work for the Most Vulnerable: 7 Guiding Principles (Policy Report #1, October 2016)

This policy report contributes to the learning process and the global discussion on addressing climate change risks for the poor and vulnerable. It does so by presenting the results the study "Climate Risk Insurance for the Poor & Vulnerable: How to Effectively Implement the Pro-Ppoor Focus of InsuResilience", that analysed 18 already existing climate risk insurance schemes.

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Climate Risk Insurance for the Poor and Vulnerable: How to Effectively Implement the Pro-Poor Focus of InsuResilience (Study, November 2016)

In support of the G7 InsuResilience Initiative, MCII undertook a study to understand how climate risk insurance can most effectively target the poor and vulnerable. The study contributes to the learning process and the global discussion on addressing climate change risks for the poor and vulnerable. The results presented in this research report, and the Pro-Poor Principles for Climate Risk Insurance in particular, are MCII’s contribution to supporting and guiding current and future efforts to reach the poor and vulnerable with climate risk insurance.

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Designing a Disaster Risk Insurance Framework for Pakistan (Project Results, September 2016)

Read about the outcomes of the CDKN-funded project "Designing a Disaster Risk Insurance Framework for Pakistan". Download the three factsheets:



MCII Infographic (2014)


The MCII infographic explains how insurance can help vulnerable people cope with extreme weather events and highlights MCII's main focus areas Initiates file downloaddownload here

Countries Addressing Climate Change Using Innovative Insurance Solutions: How to Integrate CRI into a Comprehensive Climate Risk Management Approach in Different Country Contexts (Report, November 2014)

In response to policy makers' requests for more knowledge on how to implement climate risk insurance in an integrated risk management approach, MCII has published Countries Addressing Climate Change Using Innovative Insurance Solutions, addressing these practical concerns. This document offers a close examination on how insurance instruments can be applied for different purposes and in particular contexts to address the effects of climate change. It provides three country examples of comprehensive climate risk insurance approaches that link risk transfer instruments to help low-income groups and emerging economies manage climate-related risks. Download this report Initiates file downloadhere.

Developing a Disaster Risk Insurance Framework for Vulnerable Communities in Pakistan: Pakistan Disaster Risk Profile (Report #16, May 2014)

Cooperating with CDKN and the Goverenment of Pakistan, MCII released this new report: Developing a Disaster Risk Insurance Framework for Vulnerable Communities in Pakistan – Pakistan Disaster Risk Profile.

The report describes the current disaster landscape in Pakistan and re-examines the components of risk, their purpose and measurement in risk assessment processes. It analyses disaster risk assessment initiatives in Pakistan and sets out recommendations for strengthening risk assessment practices to support informed risk reduction strategies. Download the reportInitiates file download here.